The American Academy of Pediatrics interviewed Sara Hope about our "Random App of Kindness" empathy app. Check it out!
August 16, 2017
Developer discusses how app builds empathy, research behind it
Megan A. Moreno, M.D., M.S.Ed., M.P.H., FAAP
- Mastering the Media
Parents often ask us to recommend apps for a variety of reasons such as helping with potty training or remembering to take medications. As child health experts and advocates, many of us wish we also knew more about apps focused on health and prevention that we could integrate into anticipatory guidance.
With millions of apps available, it can be overwhelming to find evidence-based ones that can help our patients. Thus, when an app has been scientifically developed, tested and found to be effective, it is worth having on our collective radar.
Random App of Kindness is one such app. Using games designed for smartphones, the app aims to increase empathy in teens.
Following is a Q&A with app developer Sara Konrath, Ph.D., who discusses how pediatricians can use Random App of Kindness to promote child health and wellness. Dr. Konrath is an assistant professor of philanthropic studies at the Indiana University Lilly Family School of Philanthropy and director of the Interdisciplinary Program on Empathy and Altruism Research.
Q: Why did you develop an app focused on empathy?
A: Research has found that empathy acts like a “social glue” that enhances our close relationships and makes us want to help others, even those who are different from us. It also makes us less likely to bully or harm others. We chose to focus on empathy because it is a critical capacity that has implications for positive youth development and for addressing larger societal issues like bullying, aggression and prejudice.
Unfortunately, our research has found that empathy has been declining among young Americans in recent generations. Many argue that mobile phones can impair people’s empathy. But our team believes that mobile phones present an opportunity to teach empathy in new ways to young people, who spend over nine hours per day on their phones.
Ultimately, our game is designed to help address the declines in empathy among young people and help promote a more caring and compassionate society.
Q: Isn’t empathy an inherent trait within a child?
A: Research has found that empathy is heritable, but there also are environmental influences on empathy. For example, certain parenting styles are associated with greater empathy in children. Other potential influences include teachers, school cultures, media and economic factors. Dozens of studies show that empathy is teachable, and people of any age, including children, can learn to be more empathic.
Q: How is empathy related to health and wellness?
A: Research has found that feelings of care and concern for others are associated with positive psychological outcomes such as lower depression and lower physiological stress responses. For example, we found that more empathic women have lower stress hormones (cortisol) when they are giving a videotaped speech. Most research, however, is focused on adults. We need more research to see how empathy is related to health and wellness among children.
Q: How did you develop and test the Random App of Kindness?
A: Most empathy training programs take place in face-to-face interactions, e.g., in a classroom or small group setting. Although these programs have been shown to be effective, they are expensive and can’t reach many people. Our team of scientists and technology developers decided to translate some of these high-impact, empathy-building practices into a mobile phone application. Our goal was to design interactive mini-games based on the latest science of building empathy and were fun and immersive on their own.
We did extensive user testing on children ages 10 to 17 to get their feedback, and made changes based on what they liked and didn’t like.
The Random App of Kindness (RAKi) has nine mini-games that cover emotion recognition, caring for vulnerable animals and babies, control and management of cognitive processes, perspective taking, motor mimicry, conflict resolution skills, helping and cooperation, and self-affirmation.
Our scientists conducted a study of 106 preteens and teens (ages 10-17) examining the effect of playing Random App of Kindness compared to a different app. After two months, we found that children who played Random App of Kindness were more likely to feel compassion for and help someone in distress. We also found that using our app was associated with a reduction in aggressive behavior. Overall, there is evidence that RAKi can increase empathy among children ages 10-17.
Q: How can pediatricians use the app in a clinical setting?
A: We are working on developing guides for parents, teachers, pediatricians and youth workers. Until then, we recommend that pediatricians include this evidence-based app on handouts of healthy media choices or discuss it informally with parents when it comes to issues around socioemotional development or media use.
We have found that children in the app’s targeted age range (10-17) can easily figure out how to use it at home. If parents have questions about why empathy is important, what kinds of skills we are aiming for in these games and how to play, they can go to our website, www.rakigame.com, for information and resource guides.
Q: Can you address reviews of the game that indicate it has some violence. For example, one mini-game has players help grandma across a street. If they fail, she is hit by a car. Another includes the option to give a crying baby poison instead of a diaper or bottle.
A: Some parents have been surprised at some of the content. Unlike violent games that promote intentional harm to others, the main goal of our game is to help others by keeping them safe from harm. Some players may find it funny to try to hurt the baby or grandma, but if so, they will lose points and not advance to the next level.
Article at link: http://www.aappublications.org/news/2017/08/16/Media081617
Random App of Kindness was featured today on Twitter's Product Hunt. That's a big deal if you are a twitter geek. Thanks @riaface for featuring us!
The scientific process behind Random App of Kindness:
Sara Konrath Ph.D. presents the science behind Random App of Kindness. Check out the video to meet Sara and learn more about our process.
Sara Konrath from the Indiana University Lilly Family School of Philanthropy speaking at the International Convention of Psychological Science / March 2017
A big thanks to Teachers With Apps for posting our press release. Your support is appreciated!
MADISON COUNTY, Ky (LEX 18) Thanks to a professor at EKU, our phones can now remind us to be kind to others.
Dr. Matthew Winslow is a social psychologist. The EKU professor is part of a team of researchers that has been developing the “Random App of Kindness” for the last three years.
Story and video at the link: goo.gl/gJUCfN
Kids can become more compassionate by playing a smartphone game
Teens and younger children may learn to be kinder and more empathetic by playing a game on their phones, thanks to a new, interactive app, “Random App of Kindness” (RAKi), created by social science researchers. RAKi is available free of charge in the iTunes App Store and Google Play Android Market.
Prior research by Sara Konrath at the Indiana University Lilly Family School of Philanthropy, who led the team that developed the app, found that empathy in young adults has been declining by 40 percent since 1979. With many people believing smartphone use impairs empathy, she and her team decided to try to create an app that could instead make people more compassionate.
“Young people are heavy users of mobile phones, and our team realized that there is a major content gap in such devices. There are very few smartphone games or apps that directly encourage kindness and caring in children. Those that do exist are rarely rigorously tested to see if they have the intended effect,” Konrath said. “We hoped to marry scientific principles with fun and engaging design.”
The app was developed by Konrath and a multidisciplinary team of collaborators: Brad Bushman (Ohio State University), Rich Tolman (University of Michigan), and Matthew Winslow (Eastern Kentucky University). Leading mobile-game developers from the technology development company HabitatSeven worked closely with the researchers to use evidence-based approaches to envision, create, and evaluate it. HopeLab, a social innovation firm, also supported the development of early prototypes. The project was funded through a grant from the John Templeton Foundation.
RAKi includes a series of nine mini-games that each aim to strengthen a specific, basic building block of empathy. For example, one game helps players to better identify which facial expressions signify particular emotions. The games were designed and user-tested with input from teens. The researchers conducted a randomized control trial examining the effects of playing with the RAKi app for two months, compared to playing a control game (the app “Two Dots”) for the same length of time.
Preliminary results suggest that children and teens ages 10-17 who played RAKi for two months had more compassionate emotional responses to another teen in distress (compared to those who played the control game). In addition, the RAKi app led to more helping behavior, and a reduction in beliefs that it was okay to use aggression as a way to solve problems. The researchers hope to publish their results in a peer-reviewed journal in the future.
Importantly, teens are positively engaging with the game. Some participants liked that it made morals and values fun instead of lecturing, while others enjoyed not knowing how to use the app at the beginning and having to figure it out on their own. This gave them a sense of accomplishment after beating a difficult level. Teens also were excited to help others, both in the game and in real life. After playing RAKi for two months, one teen couldn’t wait to tell researchers that she planned to make blankets to donate to a local children’s hospital.
More information about Random App of Kindness is available at http://www.rakigame.com, including videos and screenshots of the app. Information about the results of the research study will be updated on the website as it becomes available.
Lilly Family School of Philanthropy
The Indiana University Lilly Family School of Philanthropy is dedicated to improving philanthropy to improve the world by training and empowering students and professionals to be innovators and leaders who create positive and lasting change. The school offers a comprehensive approach to philanthropy through its academic, research and international programs and through The Fund Raising School, Lake Institute on Faith & Giving, and the Women’s Philanthropy Institute. Follow us on Twitter or “Like” us on Facebook.